Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover.


Born Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaulti de Galilei, Galileo invented the thermometer (originally, a thermoscope) in 1592. Galileo, an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer from Pisa, is often referred to as the father of the scientific method, of observational astronomy, of modern physics and of modern science generally.

Thomas Alva Edison

Thomas Edison died on October 18, 1931, at the age of 84, having averaged one patent for every three weeks he was alive.

Tooth Enamel

The hardest naturally occurring substance in the human body is tooth enamel.
But it’s not the hardest substance known to scientists – and neither are diamonds (they actually rank 7th behind some natural and some synthetic materials).
The hardest substance found in nature (or in extraterrestrial nature) is Lonsdaleite, which is carbon (graphite) discovered from the aftermath of a meteoric collision with the earth. On impact, the pressure inside the meteor causes the graphite to compress into a crystalline hexagonal lattice (diamonds have a cubic lattice structure) which can make it 58% harder than naturally occurring diamonds. Although most Lonsdaleite is impure, which softens the entire substance, impurity-free it makes quite an impact.
The hardest material known to us today is actually a synthetic array of carbon, created in laboratory and called graphene. Graphene is a defect-free network of carbon atoms bound into a perfectly hexagonal arrangement – a carbon lattice that is a single atom thick.

Hard as a Rock!

What is the hardest substance found naturally occurring in the human body?


Charles I, the King of the Franks, is best known as Charlemagne.

Charles I

What is the better known name of Charles I, the King of the Franks, who united most of Western Europe during the Middle Ages?